Metabolismo da vitamina D no organismo

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Existem duas formas básicas de vitamina D: colecalciferol (vitamina D3) e ergocalciferol (vitamina D2). Ambas podem ser obtidas através de alimentos ou suplementos vitamínicos. A vitamina D3, porém, pode também ser produzida pelo nosso corpo. Através do colesterol que é consumido nos alimentos, conseguimos obter uma substância chamada 7-dehidrocolesterol. Este colesterol se deposita nas células da pele e, quando exposto à luz solar (raios UV-B), se transforma colecalciferol (vitamina D3).

Vitamina D

Tanto o colecalciferol (vitamina D3) quanto o ergocalciferol (vitamina D2) são formas inativas da vitamina D. Para que a vitamina D possa exercer seus efeitos no organismo, mais duas metabolizações são necessárias.

O processo se dá da seguinte maneira: as vitaminas D3 e D2 obtidas na alimentação e/ou exposição solar são transportadas para o fígado, onde serão transformadas em calcidiol (25-hidroxivitamina D). O calcidiol é a forma que o corpo usa para armazenar a vitamina D. Por isso, quando queremos saber se o paciente tem níveis adequados de vitamina D no corpo, dosamos no sangue os níveis de 25-hidroxivitamina D (25OH vit D).

Quando o organismo sente necessidade de agir sobre os níveis de cálcio do sangue e dos ossos, uma parte desta 25-hidroxivitamina D é transportada até o rins, onde sofrerá o último processo de metabolização, transformando-se em calcitriol (1,25-hidroxivitamina D), esta sim a forma ativa da vitamina D.

Portanto, resumindo, a obtenção e ativação da vitamina D podem seguir dois caminhos:

Fonte: http://www.mdsaude.com/2013/01/vitamina-d.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+mdsaude+(MD.Saude)

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Diversos depoimentos médicos – Vitamin D prevents breast cancer

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(NaturalNews) You’ve heard the good news about vitamin D for years: It’s a “miracle” medicine that reduces cancer rates by 77% according to previous research

breast_cancer_survivor_pree1

(http://www.naturalnews.com/021892_cancer_Vitamin_D_cancer_industry.ht…). It also happens to be a powerful anti-cancer medicine that can both prevent and help reverse breast cancer.

Yet, bewilderingly, the cancer industry still refuses to teach women about vitamin D. Ever wonder why?

Today, we bring you a compilation of expert quotations on vitamin D and breast cancer, cited from some of the most authoritative books and authors in the world. Feel free to share what you learn here with others who may also be suffering from breast cancer.

Vitamin D and breast cancer

Sunlight triggers the formation of vitamin D in the skin, which can be activated in the liver and kidneys into a hormone with great activity. This activated form of vitamin D causes “cellular differentiation” – essentially the opposite of cancer. The following evidence indicates that vitamin D might have a protective role against breast cancer: Synthetic vitamin D-like molecules have prevented the equivalent of breast cancer in animals.
– The Natural Pharmacy: Complete A-Z Reference to Natural Treatments for Common Health Conditions by Alan R. Gaby, M.D., Jonathan V. Wright, M.D., Forrest Batz, Pharm.D. Rick Chester, RPh., N.D., DipLAc. George Constantine, R.Ph., Ph.D. Linnea D. Thompson, Pharm.D., N.D.

Two equally effective sources of vitamin D in humans are derived from plant ergosterol, which is converted to ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) by the action of sunlight on the skin. The body uses vitamin D3 for normal immune system function, to control cellular growth, and to absorb calcium from the digestive tract. Vitamin D3 can inhibit the growth of malignant melanoma, breast cancer, leukemia, and mammary tumors in laboratory animals. Vitamin D3 can also inhibit angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels that permit the spread of cancer cells through the body.
– Permanent Remissions by Robert Hass, M.S.

There’s surprising new evidence that older women who skimp on foods rich in vitamin D are more likely to develop breast cancer, according to Frank Garland, Ph.D., of the Department of Community and Family Medicine at the University of California at San Diego. This may also help explain fish’s anticancer protection, because fatty fish is packed with vitamin D. Specifically, Dr. Garland finds that dietary vitamin D wards off postmenopausal breast cancer in women over fifty, but not in women who get cancer at younger ages.
– Food Your Miracle Medicine by Jean Carper

In animals fed a high fat diet, which normally would produce a higher incidence of colon cancer, supplements of calcium and vitamin D blocked this carcinogenic effect of the diet. Vitamin D inhibits the growth of breast cancer in culture, and also seems to subdue human breast cancer. Cells from human prostate cancer were put into a “…permanent nonproliferative state”, or shut down the cancer process, by the addition of vitamin D. Human cancer cells have been shown to have receptor sites, or stereo specific “parking spaces” for vitamin D.
– Beating Cancer with Nutrition by Patrick Quillin

Even though vitamin D is one of the most powerful healing chemicals in your body, your body makes it absolutely free. No prescription required. Diseases and conditions caused by vitamin D deficiency: Osteoporosis is commonly caused by a lack of vitamin D, which impairs calcium absorption. Sufficient vitamin D prevents prostate cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, depression, colon cancer, and schizophrenia. “Rickets” is the name of a bone-wasting disease caused by vitamin D deficiency.
– Natural Health Solutions by Mike Adams

George’s Hospital Medical School in London finds local production of vitamin D in breast tissue reduces the risk for breast cancer. For women with low breast tissue levels of vitamin D the risk for breast cancer rose by 354%! This study suggests women sunbathe with breast tissue exposed to the sun to enhance local vitamin D production. The provision of 400 IU of vitamin D per day has been found to reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer by 43%.
– You Don’t Have to be Afraid of Cancer Anymore by Bill Sardi

Taken together, these facts suggest that vitamin D and its derivatives may play a role in regulating the expression of genes and protein products that prevent and inhibit breast cancer. The cancer-stopping power of vitamin D has been documented in osteosarcoma (bone cancer), melanoma, colon cancer, and breast cancer. These cancer cells contain vitamin-D receptors that make them susceptible to the anticancer effects of this vitamin-hormone made by the skin when it is exposed to sunlight. Vitamin D-rich foods include salmon, tuna, fish oils, and vitamin D-fortified milk and breakfast cereals.
– Permanent Remissions by Robert Hass, M.S.

Low levels of vitamin D may also increase the proliferation of white blood cells and may accelerate the arthritic process in rheumatoid arthritis. Vitamin D supplements are likely to be useful in retarding these adverse effects of alterations in metabolism. Low levels of vitamin D have been linked to several cancers including those of the colon, prostate and breast. Laboratory experiments show that vitamin D can inhibit the growth of human prostate cancer and breast cancer cells. Lung cancer and pancreatic cancer cells may also be susceptible to the effects of vitamin D.
– The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins, Minerals, Supplements and Herbs by Nicola Reavley

Laboratory experiments show that vitamin D can inhibit the growth of human prostate cancer and breast cancer cells. Lung cancer and pancreatic cancer cells may also be susceptible to the effects of vitamin D. Sunlight also seems to be protective against several types of cancer including ovarian, breast and prostate cancers; and this effect may be mediated by vitamin D levels. Synthetic vitamin D-type compounds are being investigated for their potential as anticancer drugs.
– The New Encyclopedia of Vitamins, Minerals, Supplements and Herbs by Nicola Reavley

If mutations aren’t corrected or if a cell has already undergone malignant transformation, activated vitamin D can team up with other proteins to stimulate programmed death of abnormal cells. This evidence, along with animal studies, suggest that a girl who lacks adequate vitamin D during puberty years will have abnormal breast development. This, in turn, may increase a woman’s susceptibility to risk factors such as alcohol for breast cancer development. In other words, the window of greatest opportunity for vitamin D to reduce breast cancer risk may be during childhood and puberty.
– The Vitamin D Cure by James Dowd and Diane Stafford

A key development for vitamin D was the appearance of increasing evidence that experts had detected a strong relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer risk. The important Nurses Health Study found a 30 percent lower risk of breast cancer in pre-menopausal women when comparing the highest to the lowest intakes of vitamin D, calcium, and low-fat dairy, especially skim milk.
– The Vitamin D Cure by James Dowd and Diane Stafford

Out of every 100 women who might get breast cancer, 50 of them can avoid breast cancer by simply getting adequate levels of vitamin D in their body, and that’s available free of charge through sensible exposure to natural sunlight, which produces vitamin D. This vitamin, all by itself, reduces relative cancer risk by 50 percent, which is better than any prescription drug that has ever been invented by any drug company in the world. Combine that with green tea, and your prevention of breast cancer gets even stronger.
 Natural Health Solutions by Mike Adams

There’s so much more to vitamin D than enhancing calcium absorption; its anticancer benefit is just one other possibility. Most of 63 recently reviewed studies found a protective effect between vitamin D status and cancer risk. A study presented at the 2006 American Association for Cancer Research meeting suggested that an increase in vitamin D lowered the risk of developing breast cancer by up to 50 percent. How might vitamin D help?
– Food Synergy: Unleash Hundreds of Powerful Healing Food Combinations to Fight Disease and Live Well by Elaine Magee

Place sunshine or vitamin D pills on your list of preventive or therapeutic measures. A daily intake of 2,600 units of vitamin D (65 mcg) is recommended to attain blood concentrations that will optimally protect against disease. There is no way the diet can provide this much vitamin D. Sun-starved females are at great risk for breast cancer, particularly women living in northern latitudes where wintertime sun exposure produces little vitamin D because of a decline in UV radiation in solar light.
– You Don’t Have to be Afraid of Cancer Anymore by Bill Sardi

Sunlight produces vitamin D in humans. A deficiency of vitamin D is linked with breast cancer. Was the increase in male breast cancer caused by magnetic fields or by lack of vitamin D? These are the types of questions that make it difficult to ascertain if there is a link between EMF exposure and cancer. To make matters worse, a cell biologist doing work on EMFs for the Department of Energy, faked data linking cancer to electromagnetic fields in order to gain $3.3 million worth of grants for scientific research.
– You Don’t Have to be Afraid of Cancer Anymore by Bill Sardi

The dosage of vitamin D required to inhibit the growth of prostate cancer may be much higher than the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of 400 international units per day. Since vitamin D can be toxic in doses that greatly exceed this value, researchers have developed synthetic analogues of vitamin D that retain the ability to inhibit cancer cell growth without the toxicity associated with high doses. These analogs have been successfully used in animal models of leukemia and breast cancer. Vitamin D may be related to other cancers.
– Permanent Remissions by Robert Hass, M.S.

Sunlight exposure, which leads to an increased level of vitamin D, correlates with a reduced risk of breast cancer. I usually recommend small amounts of vitamin D (400 to 1,000 IU) for those people without sunlight exposure, especially during the winter. I also occasionally recommend cod liver oil during the winter months as a source of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids. Vitamin D deficiency is very common in the elderly and in people who live in parts of the world with little sunlight; it is also one of the major contributing factors to osteoporosis.
– Herbal Medicine, Healing and Cancer: A Comprehensive Program for Prevention and Treatment by Donald R. Yance, j r.,C.N., M.H., A.H.G., with Arlene Valentine

But how does vitamin D actually work? For many years that was a mystery. The “revolution of information” on vitamin D began in 1968, when J.W. Blunt and colleagues discovered the form of vitamin D that actually circulates in the blood (25-OH-D3). This hormonal form of the vitamin, created in the kidneys, is ultimately responsible for the classical action of the vitamin. At the molecular level, some cancer cells appear to have receptors on their surfaces that are capable of receiving the vitamin D molecule. Scientists studied cancer cells from 136 patients with breast cancer.
– Cancer Therapy: The Independent Consumer’s Guide To Non-Toxic Treatment & Prevention by Ralph W. Moss, Ph.D.

Symptoms of vitamin D toxicity include anorexia, disorientation, dehydration, fatigue, weight loss, weakness, and vomiting. New analogues of vitamin D3 allow cancer victims to take high doses of the vitamin without fear of elevating calcium in the blood to dangerous levels. These new forms of vitamin D have very high potency in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. One of these, calci-potriol, can be used topically to treat psoriasis and inhibit the growth of metastatic breast cancer in patients with whose tumors have vitamin D receptors.
– Permanent Remissions by Robert Hass, M.S.

In an investigation into the relationship of breast density as measured by mammography to serum-vitamin D levels, it was found that there was a strong inverse correlation; the higher the density, the lower the vitamin D levels. Does the blood level of vitamin D at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer make a difference in a woman’s time of survival? Yes, it does.
 The Clinician’s Handbook of Natural Healing by Gary Null, Ph.D.

Although not part of the study, outdoor exercise where you are getting some (but not too much) sun exposure also raises vitamin D levels. Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with a greater risk of cancer. Relaxation techniques such as writing, meditation, yoga, or massage therapy can aid in battling breast cancer. There is a clear link between alcohol consumption and an increased risk of breast cancer. A study reported in The New England journal of Medicine has stated that consuming as few as three alcoholic drinks a week increases the potential for breast cancer by 50 percent.
– Prescription for Nutritional Healing, 4th Edition: A Practical A-to-Z Reference to Drug-Free Remedies Using Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs & Food Supplements by Phyllis A. Balch, CNC

Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/027204_cancer_Vitamin_D_breast.html#ixzz2GCGrQrq6

A vital importância do hormônio conhecido por Vitamina D3 para a preservação ou recuperação de sua saúde de doenças autoimunes: exijam que seus médicos se atualizem

vitamina D revolution

 

Este espaço tem as mais recentes informações sobre a descoberta pela pesquisa médica científica da vital importância preventiva e terapêutica da VITAMINA D3 e sobre o grave assunto de saúde pública das DOENÇAS AUTOIMUNES, que este hormônio na realidade pode PREVENIR e também solucionar.  Na COLUNA DA ESQUERDA deste site está situado em último lugar a categoria “VITAMINA D”.  Entrem ali e terão acesso às principais publicações, vídeos e programas feitos sobre esta vitamina-hormônio.  Ou apenas cliquem no link que dá acesso direto a todas elas:

Postagens sobre Vitamina D neste Blog

 https://biodireitomedicina.wordpress.com/category/vitamina-d/

No meu canal do YouTube, todo o material de áudio, vídeos e programas sobre Vitamina D3 podem ser acessados neste endereço:

Vitamina D3 – 10.000 UI diárias é vital para preservar à saúde

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL301EAE2D5602A758

No Facebook apenas “curta” esta página e estará automaticamente inscrito:

Vitamina D é um hormônio vital para preservação da saúde

https://www.facebook.com/VitaminaD.HormonioVital

Cientistas convocam para uma Ação de Saúde Pública tendo como modelo o uso do Hormônio-Vitamina D

 

Celso Galli Coimbra
OABRS 11.352
cgcoimbra@gmail.com
https://biodireitomedicina.wordpress.com/
https://www.facebook.com/celso.gallicoimbra
https://www.facebook.com/VitaminaD.HormonioVital
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL301EAE2D5602A758
http://www.youtube.com/biodireitobioetica
 
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                   VITAMINA D e a RESPONSABILIDADE CIVIL DO MÉDICO

ATENÇÃO: o uso preventivo do Vitamina D3 é DIFERENTE do uso terapêutico deste hormônio-vitamina, que exige sempre a orientação e acompanhamento de médico com treinamento adequado para ser responsável pela avaliação caso a caso e a específica determinação de dosagem, em contrário haverá sérios danos à saúde. EXIJAM  de seus médicos que se atualizem sobre este avanço fundamental na Medicina para que você e mais pessoas possam se beneficiar destes tratamentos de baixo custo já reconhecidos internacionalmente. É OBRIGAÇÃO legal do médico manter-se ATUALIZADO sobre os avanços da ciência médica e sobre este tratamento existem milhares de publicações altamente conceituadas na comunidade médica internacional. Os médicos e seus órgãos gestores não podem – sob pena de responsabilidade civil e criminal, em havendo dano para o paciente, evitável para a saúde dele pelo conhecimento médico atual disponível na comunidade médica internacional –  deixarem-se subordinar às motivações da Indústria Farmacêutica, que não tem interesse algum na cura das doenças autoimunes, pois ganha fortunas  diariamente com a venda de remédios alopatas que não curam e, quando muito para alguns, apenas amenizam os efeitos dessas patologias, além de causar diversos outros  colaterais para a saúde do paciente.

Celso Galli Coimbra – OABRS 11352
cgcoimbra@gmail.com
https://biodireitomedicina.wordpress.com/
https://www.facebook.com/celso.gallicoimbra
http://www.youtube.com/biodireitobioetica
https://www.facebook.com/VitaminaD.HormonioVital
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL301EAE2D5602A758
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Publicado em A prevenção de doenças neurodegenerativas, Alimentação e nutrição, Biodireito, Brasil, Direitos do Consumidor, Doenças autoimunes, Esclerose múltipla, Facebook, Indústria Farmacêutica, Médicos adotam a terapia com Vitamina D, Medicina, Neurologia, Notícias, Vitamina D. Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . 22 Comments »

“The Drugs that completely cure are not profitable” – Dr. Richard J. Roberts, Prêmio Nobel da Medicina 1993

Assista aos vídeos:

Vitamina D – Sem Censura – Dr. Cicero Galli Coimbra e Daniel Cunha

Vitamina D – por uma outra terapia
Vitamin D – For an alternative therapy

The Real Story on Vitamin D

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“The Drugs that completely cure are not profitable”

Interview with Dr. Richard J. Roberts, Nobel Prize in Medicine 1993

(Original en español: http://www.lavanguardia.es/free/edicionimpresa/20070727/53380162760.html)

I’m 63 years old: the worst about getting older is that you consider many “truths” as holy: that’s when you need new questions. I was born in Derby, my mechanic father gave me a chemistry set … and I still enjoy playing. Married, four children, one quadriplegic by an accident, which keep me encouraged to continue investigating. I participate in the Campus for Excellence.

– Can research be planned?

If I were Minister of Science, I would seek enthusiastic people with interesting projects, just give them money so they wouldn’t need to do anything else than investigate and let them work ten years to surprise us.

– It seems like a good policy.

It is generally believed that to go very far, you have to support basic research, but if you want more immediate and profitable results, you must bet on the applied research …

– And is it not like this?

Often the most profitable discoveries have been made ​​from very basic questions. So was created the giant U.S. biotech billion-dollar industry where I work.

– How was it created?

Biotechnology appeared when passionate people started to wonder if they could clone genes and began to study and try to purify them.

– An adventure by itself!

Yes, but nobody expected to get rich with these questions. It was difficult to get funding to research the answers until Nixon launched the war against cancer in 1971.

– Was it scientifically productive?

It allowed much research (like mine), with an enormous amount of public funds, that didn’t work directly against cancer, but was useful for understanding the mechanisms that allow life.

– What did you discover?

Phillip Allen Sharp and I were rewarded by the discovery of introns in eukaryotic DNA and gene splicing mechanism.

– For what was it useful?

That discovery led to understand how DNA works, however, has only an indirect link with cancer.

– Which model seems more effective research for you, the American or the European?
It’s obvious that the U.S., where private capital has an active role, is much more efficient. Take for example the spectacular progress of the computer industry, where private money financed basic and applied research, but for the health industry … I have my reservations.

– I listen

Research on human health cannot depend only on its profitability. What’s good for the corporate dividends is not always good for people.

– Could you explain?

Pharmaceutical industry wants to serve the capital markets …

– As any other industry

It’s just not any other industry, we are talking about our health and our lives and our children and millions of human beings.

– But if they are profitable, they will research better.

If you only think about benefits, you stop worrying about serving people.

– For instance?

I’ve seen that in some cases researchers dependent on private funds would have discovered a very effective medicine that would have completely eliminated a disease …

– And why do they stop investigating?

Because drug companies often are not as interested in healing you as in getting your money, so that investigation, suddenly, is diverted to the discovery of drugs that do not heal completely, but chronify the disease and make you experience an improvement that disappears when you stop taking the drug.

– It’s a serious accusation.

It is usual that pharmaceutical companies are interested in research that doesn’t cure but only make illnesses chronic with more profitable drugs that the ones that would completely cure once and forever. You just need to follow the financial analysis of the pharmaceutical industry and verify what I say.

– There are killing dividends.

That’s why we say that health cannot be a market and cannot be understood merely as a means of earning money. And I think that the European model of mixed private and public capital is less likely to encourage such abuses.

– An example of such abuse?

Investigations with antibiotics have been stopped because they were too effective and completely cured. As no new antibiotics have been developed, infectious organisms have become resistant and today tuberculosis, which in my childhood had been defeated, reappears and has killed this past year a million people.
– Are you talking about the Third World?

That is another sad chapter: Third World diseases are hardly investigated, because the drugs that would fight them are unprofitable. But I’m talking about our First World: the medicine that completely heals is not profitable and therefore is not researched.

– Don’t get politicians involved?

Don’t get too excited: in our system, politicians are mere employees of big companies, who invest what is necessary so that “their kids” get elected, and if they are not elected, they buy those who were elected.
Money and big companies are only interested in multiply. Almost all politicians – and I know what I mean, depend shamelessly on these multinational pharmaceutical companies that fund their campaigns. The rest are words …

Note of Ariel: Revista ARIEL recommends its readers read the following links taken from Periodismo Humano, relating to this same topic:

Periodismo Humano: http://periodismohumano.com con la serie ‘Farmacéuticas: razones para el escepticismo’

La industria farmacéutica hoy. Cualquier producto que demuestre ser mejor que un placebo puede ser comercializado. La industria gasta el doble en promocionar los medicamentos que en su investigación y desarrollo.

http://periodismohumano.com/sociedad/salud/la-industria-farmaceutica-hoy.html

¿Y quién vigila a las farmacéuticas? La relación entre los organismos reguladores y las empresas a las que tienen que regular.

http://periodismohumano.com/sociedad/salud/¿y-quien-vigila-a-las-farmaceuticas.html

Promocionando enfermedades: medicinas para los sanos.Las farmacéuticas exageran sobre afecciones comunes para captar a más clientes. Dos ejemplos: el debilitamiento de los huesos y la disfunción sexual femenina.

http://periodismohumano.com/sociedad/salud/promocionando-enfermedades-medicinas-para-los-sanos.html

Farmacéuticas y médicos: cómo bailar con puercoespines.Congresos, regalos, viajes, relaciones personales, ¿cómo influye la industria en el trabajo de los profesionales de la salud?. En Toledo, un 77% de los médicos recibe a diario la visita de representantes de las farmacéuticas.

http://periodismohumano.com/sociedad/salud/farmaceuticas-y-medicos-como-bailar-con-puercoespines.html

Fonte: http://www.revista-ariel.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=992:interview-with-dr-richard-j-roberts-nobel-prize-in-medicine&catid=54:healthy-mind-healthy-body&Itemid=83

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The effect of vitamin D and frailty on mortality among non-institutionalized US older adults

Assista aos vídeos:

Vitamina D – Sem Censura – Dr. Cicero Galli Coimbra e Daniel Cunha

Vitamina D – por uma outra terapia

Vitamin D – For an alternative therapy
 
The Real Story on Vitamin D

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ad32GM5paok&list=UU5grjCGNi25VAR8J0eVuxVQ&index=1&feature=plcp

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European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication 13 June 2012; doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.67

E Smit1, C J Crespo2, Y Michael3, F A Ramirez-Marrero4, G R Brodowicz2, S Bartlett5 and R E Andersen5

  1. 1Department of Public Health, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA
  2. 2School of Community Health, Portland State University, Portland, OR, USA
  3. 3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
  4. 4Department of Exercise Science, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico
  5. 5Departments of Kinesiology and Physical Education, and Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada

Correspondence: Dr E Smit, Department of Public Health, Oregon State University, Waldo 316, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA. E-mail: Ellen.Smit@oregonstate.edu

Received 21 February 2012; Revised 30 April 2012; Accepted 30 April 2012
Advance online publication 13 June 2012


Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:

Although both frailty and low vitamin D have been separately associated with an increased risk for adverse health, their joined effects on mortality have not been reported. The current study examined prospectively the effects of frailty and vitamin D status on mortality in US older adults.

SUBJECTS/METHODS:

Participants aged greater than or equal to60 years in The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with 12 years of mortality follow-up were included in the analysis (n=4731). Frailty was defined as meeting three or more criteria and pre-frailty as meeting one or two of the five frailty criteria (low body mass index (BMI), slow walking, weakness, exhaustion and low physical activity). Vitamin D status was assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and categorized into quartiles. Analyses were adjusted for gender, race, age, smoking, education, latitude and other comorbid conditions.

RESULTS:

Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were lowest in participants with frailty, intermediate in participants with pre-frailty and highest in participants without frailty. The odds of frailty in the lowest quartile of serum 25(OH)D was 1.94 times the odds in the highest quartile (95%confidence interval (CI): 1.09–3.44). Mortality was positively associated with frailty, with the risk among participants who were frail and had low serum 25(OH)D being significantly higher than those who were not frail and who had high concentrations of serum 25(OH)D (hazards ratio 2.98; 95%CI: 2.01–4.42).

CONCLUSION:

Our results suggest that low serum 25(OH)D is associated with frailty, and there is additive joint effects of serum 25(OH)D and frailty on all-cause mortality in older adults.

Fonte: http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/vaop/ncurrent/abs/ejcn201267a.html

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